# Data Visualisation 5 – Pedagogy to Andragogy

This week I continued with the learning journey from Data Visualisation 4 – Bloom’s 2-Sigma Problem and Synchronous Teaching. I decided to explore an asynchronous and synchronous synergetic model in which the two can leverage and support each other for effective student-centred learning Lemov (2021). In this week’s approach, once student A had engaged with the material herself and requested help, I supported student A *asynchronously *with self-created video solutions using FlipGrid; this also allowed for greater levels of personalised teaching based on explanations adapted to the learner’s cognitive preference e.g. representing various stages of the function before an algebraic solution is considered.

Student A then attempted the topic questions again and if needed, I then supported student A, *synchronously*. The questions being attempted are not tests for each topic but adaptive mathematical questions that require the application of skills and understanding. One can also arguably see the progress through such activities and ‘collecting points’ as a process of gamification (Benn, 2013). It remains to question if mastery learning is more suitable for an outcomes-based education system by offering greater levels of personalisation of the curriculum given the greater impact over constructivist approaches to learning and if the two are mutually exclusive (Gokalp, 2017).

The data visualisation produced is a co-constructed visual representation of the learning journey of the student, where the vertical hight represents the number of ‘building blocks’ or ‘gaps’ that have been addressed. The horizontal blocks are the topics student A is working through at her own pace rather than that of an externally dictating one. The sequence of colours offer a way of representing, to some degree, Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development of the student for the topic, ‘to determine what a student can do with help and without help’, as well as the potential for determining student resilience over time; such a constructivist approach and learner autonomy allows for a shift from pedagogy to andragogy along the pedagogy-heutagogy spectrum (Halupa, 2015).

Concept | Pedagogy | Andragogy |

Role of Learner | Dependent | Self-Directed |

Role of Faculty Member | Delivers knowledge | Facilitates Knowledge |

Experiential | No | Yes |

Primary Activities | Lecture-Based; Objective Testing | Experiential Strategies: group work, case studies, simulations, field experience; varied types of testing |

Readiness | Are told when they are ready | Decide what additional knowledge is needed |

Sequencing | Step-by-step uniform progression | Based on learner skills and readiness |

Learning | Facts which will only be useful later on | Process-oriented for future potential |

Curriculum | Simple to Complex | Competency-based or categorical |

Age Group | All age groups; but primarily K-12 | Higher education (although concepts can be applicable to K-12) |

Motivation | External | Internal |

Knowledge | Done without question | Must understand why it is important |

Readiness to Learn | What is required | When content is relevant |

Focus | Subject-centered | Life-centered |

*Table 1 Comparison of Pedagogy and Andragogy (Halupa, 2015)*

The data visualisation produced is significantly different from a teacher’s mastery-learning grade book, which wouldn’t necessarily provide a visualisation of a personalised learning journey (*CanvasLMS*, 2020).

A potential problem with data visualisation-5 is **defining terms** and what we mean by terms such as ‘mastery’ and to what extent a score on a task is reflective of that (Spiegelhalter, 2019). In the case of student A, despite having achieved 90% in topic 4 for example, there was still more work required to deepen her understanding. Also, the remaining 10% may not represent a skill or comprehension gap if it is addressed through ‘corrective measures’ or ‘self-learning’ through subsequent activities or questions in the very task.

**References**

Benn, B. (2013) *The 2-Sigma Problem: Ben Betts at TEDxWarwickED – YouTube*. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqLiLH6Sjnw (Accessed: 28 February 2021).

*CanvasLMS* (2020). Available at: https://community.canvaslms.com/t5/Instructor-Guide/How-do-I-use-the-Learning-Mastery-Gradebook-to-view-outcome/ta-p/775 (Accessed: 28 February 2021).

Gokalp, M. (no date) ‘COMPARE THE EFFECT OF MASTERY LEARNING AND CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES TO THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF TEACHERS’, 3(1), p. 6.

Halupa, C. (2015) ‘Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Heutagogy’, in, pp. 143–158. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8571-0.ch005.

Spiegelhalter, D. J. (2019) *The art of statistics: learning from data*. UK: Pelican, an imprint of Penguin Books (Pelican book).

‘One can also arguably see the progress through such activities and ‘collecting points’ as a process of gamification (Benn, 2013)’

Thanks for sharing the video – some of the ideas around awarding community participation and helpful activity seemed like a great idea.

‘It remains to question if mastery learning is more suitable for an outcomes-based education system by offering greater levels of personalisation of the curriculum given the greater impact over constructivist approaches to learning and if the two are mutually exclusive (Gokalp, 2017).’

Good question. However, Gokalp concludes that the constructivist group fared better: ‘Constructivist approach group has been more successful than mastery learning group’ p127

I think the ‘outcomes-based education’ question is a pertinent one, if by that you mean subjects which have ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect knowledge that is universally agreed. In other words, where the answer to an algebra exam question is either right or wrong, one can easily create discrete steps to mastery learning. But if the exam question is: ‘what were the factors that led to the power of Hollywood studios in the 1930s?’, there may be many routes to ‘mastery’?

I like the visualisation you are developing in this block, and linking this one to Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development seems productive – I imagine this might be something a teacher would want to ‘see’ when considering student progress.

Hi Jeremy

“But if the exam question is: ‘what were the factors that led to the power of Hollywood studios in the 1930s?’, there may be many routes to ‘mastery’?”

Agree – I would imagine ‘mastery’ can be defined in terms or right or wrong answers (e.g. maths question) but also in term so of demonstrable qualities such as collaboration, problem-solving etc and therefore many routes to mastery depending on what is being assessed or measured? Maybe the same actually applies to a maths question too, in that the quality of mathematical thinking through worked solutions, problem-solving, creativity is assessed as opposed to simply the output being correct or incorrect.

Quadratic equations, for example, can be solved in a variety of ways and it could be asked which method is the most appropriate or elegant for the situation?

Thank you for the blog… I have learnt about Andragogy.. first time I heard the term so I did some googling. In the spirit of the teaching block… I was taught something from your blog!

Thank you! Thats wonderful to know. I’ve learned a lot too about andragogy and heutagogy